বৃহষ্পতিবার, মে ২৬, ২০১১

Ahmed Abdur Rahman Bukhatir

(Arabic: أحمدعبدالرحمن بوخاطر‎) (born 16 October 1975) is an Emirati Islamic singer. Born in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates, Ahmed Bukhatir has a become famous icon in Sharjah for his Islamic songs known as Nasheeds. Ahmed sings his nasheed without any musical instruments in respect to his religious values. Ahmed started Islamic recitations at a very early age, however it was not until 2000 he released his first album Entasaf Al-Layl followed by five more albums, most recent being Hasanat which was released in 2007. He released his latest album "Moments with Allah" in August 2010 with DU Telecom.        

Biography

Ahmed Bukhatir was born in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates in 1975 to an influential family in Sharjah, UAE. At an early age Ahmed started recitations of Quran at Islamic centres in his home town Sharjah, however it was not until 2000 that Ahmed launched his first official album Entasaf Al-Layl and started gaining popularity for his voice. Ahmed continues to sing without musical instruments in respect of his religious values and does not intend to use them in the future.[1]
His third album “Samtan,” which consisted of his first English nasheed “Last Breath,” gained popularity beyond the borders of the Middle East, which encouraged him to sing more English nasheeds and even a French nasheed. His live performances have attracted sizeable audiences, such as at a Global Peace and Unity (GPU) event in the United Kingdom in 2006 that gained an audience of thirty-five thousand attendees to see the various speakers and performers. Along with the nasheed singing Ahmed Bukhatir is also a businessman and a senator of Sharjah government in United Arab Emirates.
He has participated in many charity events including the Muslim Aid Event in London, United Kingdom, in 2010.[2] Ahmed continues to deliver the message of Islam through his voice to the world. Along with Islamic nasheeds, Ahmed also performs nasheeds which place emphasis on community issues in every society.[3]

Business career

Ahmed Bukhatir graduated in 1999 from Al Ain University of Science and Technology. He is currently chairing his own group consisting of companies in different fields in the business world. He is also a member of the board of Directors in the Bukhatir Group. He was also appointed by the Ruler of Sharjah to become a member of Sharjah Council as a senator.[4][5]

Discography

Ahmed Bukhatir has released many albums covering many topics that include Islam and community issues.

Latest Album

Moments with Allah
"Moments with Allah".
Ahmed Bukhatir's latest album was released in August 2010. It consists of ten nasheeds of which six are in Arabic, three in English and one (his first ever) in French. The Album was sponsored by Du Telecom of UAE, of which Ahmed Bukhatir was announced as the Ambassador of Du.[6]
Bukhatir's latest video clip is "Moth Arafto Allah Rabi", which was shot in Cairo, Egypt in June 2010. It was directed by Ahmed Abdul Baset. The clip features Ahmed in a new look; not wearing the Emirati traditional dress.[7]
Track Listing
# Title Language
01. La Illha il Allah ( There is no God but Allah) AR
02. Nihaya Ghorba AR
03. Remember Them EN
04. Yusuf EN
05. Pourquoi Les Hommes Pleurent FR
06. Hold These Days EN
07. Ouda Dura AR
08. Ya Illahi (Oh God) AR
09. Dunya Bashar AR
10. Moth Arafto Allah Rabi AR

Performances & Concerts

Ahmed first performed at a major concert in 2002. It was attended by members of the Royal Families of UAE.[8] He performed at the "Holy Qura'an" competition attended by H.H. Sheikh Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum and Sheikh Abdul Rahman Al Sudais.[9][10] Following his successful home concerts, Ahmed performed in various countries around the world including India, South Africa, Australia and, most notably, at the Global Peace and Unity event which was held in London, United Kingdom, in 2006.[11]
Bukhatir recently performed in London at the Muslim Aid 25th Anniversary Event which was attended by notable guests from the United Kingdom and the Arab world.[12]
On 3 July 2010, Ahmed performed at the "Journey of Faith" 3rd Annual “Journey of Faith” Conference which was held in Toronto, Canada. This was the first time Ahmed had performed across the Atlantic.[13]

Global Peace and Unity

On 23 October 2010, Ahmed performed again performed at a Global Peace and Unity event at the London Excel Hall, London, United Kingdom. With an audience over the weekend of 50,000 people attending the seminars, art shows, exhibitions and various performances, Ahmed performed on the weekend of 23 and 24 October.[14]

Ahmed Bukhatir's website   Ahmed-Bukhatir on Facebook          Ahmedbukhatir on Twitter

মঙ্গলবার, মে ২৪, ২০১১

No Beats Necessary

No beats Necessary is an amazing band of Nasheeds'world. Because, this band do not use music or musical instruments. Very few artists of nasheeds sing nasheed without music or musical instrument. This band is very popular for these people who listen nasheeds without music.Usually they sing Nasheeds in English language. In a word, their nasheeds are Halal.      
Genre
Islamic Nasheed
Members
3 Brothers from Melbourne, Australia.
Hometown
Melbourne, Australia
Record Label
Takbir Productions
About
'The truth told through Song'
- No Beats Necessary
Press Contact
info@takbirproductions.com

Website of No Beats Necessary                             No-Beats-Necessary in facebook           no beats necessary in myspace
no beats necessary in youtube

রবিবার, মে ২২, ২০১১

What does Islam say about Music and Singing?

In the name of Allah, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful, The worst-case scenario in the event of being inflicted with a disease is when the one involved refuses to believe that he has been inflicted with that disease. The way this phenomenon is accepted and recognised in diseases and illnesses that affect the physical body, it is also true with regards to spiritual diseases and ailments.

When a person commits a sin (May Allah save us all) believing that a sin is being committed and feels regret and remorse in the heart, then this is far better than committing the sin and believing it to be lawful (halal). In the former situation, only one sin is being committed, and it is very likely that the individual may repent out of the remorse felt in the heart. In the latter case, however, in addition to the sin being committed, there is the greater sin of trying to justify it. Normally, such an individual does not receive the guidance to repent from his sin. (May Allah save us all, Ameen)

Music and Singing

The case with music and unlawful singing is the same. It has been decisively prohibited in Shariah, as the evidences mentioned further along will illustrate. Yet there are individuals who are not ready to believe that it is unlawful (haram).

In the modern era, music has spread to such an extent that nobody is free from it. Individuals are confronted with situations where they are forced to listen to music. It is played nearly in all department stores and supermarkets. If you sit in a taxi, make a phone call or even walk down the street, you will not be saved from this evil. Young Muslims drive around in their cars with the music fully blasted. The increasing popularity of music, which is prevalent in our society, poses a great threat to the Muslims.

Music is a direct ploy of the non-Muslims. One of the main causes for the decline of the Muslims is their involvement in useless entertainment. Today we see that Muslims are involved, and at the forefront perhaps, of many immoralities and evils. The spiritual power which once was the trait of a Muslim is nowhere to be seen. One of the main reasons for this is music and useless entertainment.

Harms and effects of music

We should be aware that nothing has been prohibited by the Almighty Creator except that which is harmful to the Muslims and the society as a whole. There are great harms and ill-effects of music.

Islam totally forbids adultery and also those things that lead to it. Allah Most High says:

“And do not (even) come near to adultery, for it is a shameful deed and an evil, opening the road (to other evils).” (al-Isra, 32)

Islam does not only prohibit adultery and fornication, but also those things that may lead to it. This is the reason why the Qur’an orders Muslim men and women to lower their gazes. It prohibits one from being alone with someone of the opposite sex (khalwa). Informal interaction with the opposite sex has also been made unlawful.

This is also one of the main reasons for the prohibition of music, as it effects one’s emotions, creates arousal, passion and excitement, and also leads to various physiological changes in the person. It is a psychological proven fact that two things are instrumental in arousing the human sexual desire, one being the voice of a female (for males) and the other music.

This is the reason why Allah Most High says:

“O wives of the prophet! You are not like other women, if you are god-fearing. So do not be soft in speech. Lest in whose heart is disease should be moved with desire.” (Surah al-Ahzab, v. 32)

Thus, Islam forbids listening to the female voice with lust and desire. The great Hanafi Jurist, Imam Ibn Abidin (Allah have mercy on him) states:

“It is permissible for women to converse with non-Mahram men at the time of need (and vice versa). However, what is not permissible is that they stretch, soften and raise their voice in a melodious way.” (Radd al-Muhtar, V.1, P. 406)

Similarly, it is also unlawful for women to listen to the voice of non-Mahram men with lust and desire. One of the great western thinkers said: “The voice is one of the quickest ways that make a woman fall in love with a man. This is the reason why many women adore singers.”

The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) was also wary of this fact when he said to the Companion Bara ibn Malik: “O Bara! Let not the women here your voice.” (Kanz al-Ummal, 7/322) The same has also been reported from the Companion Anjasha (Allah be pleased with him).

Physical Effect of Music

Experiments carried out by doctors and researchers confirm that music is such that it does not only affect the brain, but each and every organ of the body. There is a close relationship between music and bodily movements.

It is also proved that music affects one’s emotions, increases arousal in terms of alertness and excitement and also leads to various psychological changes in the person. In a psychological experiment, it was found that listening to moderate type of music increased one’s normal heart beat, whilst listening to rock music the heart beat increased even further, yet people claim that music has no effect.

In conclusion, music and the instruments used for singing are a cause for arousing the sexual desire of an individual. It could lead a person to adultery and fornication. Therefore, Islam takes the preventive measure rather than suffer the consequences. This is also one of the principles of Islamic Jurisprudence, namely ‘blocking the means’ (sadd al-dhara'i). This is based on the idea of preventing an evil before it actually materializes, and is taken from the heart of the guidance of the Qur’an and Sunnah that, “Preventing harm is given precedence even to achieving possible benefits.”

Becoming Heedless of Allah

One of the harms of music is that it distracts one from his Creator. It serves as a temporary means of pleasure and satisfaction, which makes one forget who he really is and why he was created. This is the reason why musical instruments are known in the Arabic language as ‘malaahi’ meaning instruments that prevent one from the remembrance of Allah Almighty.

Human has been created for a noble purpose. Allah Most High says:

“I have created jinn and humans only that they serve (worship) me.” (Surah al-Dhariyat, 56)

Music and temporary entertainments sink the human in physical pleasures and prevent him/her from true spiritual gains. In conclusion, music has a great role to play in preventing a human from realising the purpose of creation.

Un-Islamic Values

Another harm of music is that it instils the ideologies of the non-Muslims in the heart and mind. The messages of today’s music follow a general theme of love, fornication, drugs and freedom.

We find that the whole world is obsessed with the Kufr idea of unrestrained freedom, i.e. freedom of speech and movement, etc… This idea of freedom, “it’s my life, I’ll do what I want” is a predominant theme of music today. It is used as a means of drilling western ideologies into the hearts and minds, which are totally contrary to Islamic values and teachings.

The Difference between Legal Wisdom and Legal Reason

The above are just some of the harms and evil effects of music. One must remember here that these are the wisdoms for the prohibition of music and not the reason (illah). The Shariah ruling is based upon the reason, and not the wisdom. In other words if the harms for the prohibition of music are taken care of, it will not make music permissible.

An example for this is that the wisdom behind the prohibition of wine and alcohol is that it creates enmity and hatred between people and it hinders one from the remembrance of Allah. The reason, however, is that it is an intoxicating substance. Now, if one was to say that wine will be Halal for me, as I will lock myself up after drinking wine, thus no destruction will be caused. Any sane person will conclude that he is wrong, as wine is Haram whether you cause any destruction and damage to others or not. The reason being is that the cause (illa) for the prohibition of wine is intoxication, regardless of whether the wisdom (hikma) is present or not.

The same is with music. If one is saved from the abovementioned harms, even then music will still remain Haram. It can not be held lawful even if one is saved from its harms. This is a well established principle in the science of Usul al-Fiqh.

Ruling on musical instruments and unlawful singing

In light of the evidences that will be mentioned shortly, the following are unlawful in Shariah:

a) Musical instruments that are exclusively designed for entertainment and dancing, and create charm, pleasure and bliss on their own (even without the singing), such as the drum, violin, guitar, fiddle, flute, lute, mandolin, harmonium, piano, string, etc are all impermissible and unlawful (haram) to use.

There is a consensus of the whole Ummah on this. Since the first century, the Companions (sahaba), their followers (tabi’in), jurists (fuqaha) and the scholars have been generally unanimous on this ruling.

b) Singing that is a cause for a sin is also unlawful with the consensus of all the scholars, such as songs that prevent one from the obligatory (fard & wajib).

c) Any singing that is accompanied by other sins, such as songs that consist of unlawful, immoral, and sexual themes, or it is sang by non-Mahram women, etc will also be unlawful. This ruling is also with the consensus of all the scholars.

Evidences

There are numerous evidences in the Qur’an and Sunnah which support this view. We will attempt to look at a few:

1) Allah Most High says:

“And there are among men, those that purchase idle tales, to mislead (men) from the path of Allah and throw ridicule. For such there will be a humiliating punishment.” (Surah Luqman, V. 6)

The great Companion Sayyiduna Abd Allah ibn Mas’ud (Allah be pleased with him) states in the explanation of the word “idle tales”:

“By Allah its meaning is music.” (Sunan al-Bayhaqi, 1/223 & authenticated by al-Hakim in his Mustadrak, 2/411)

Imam Ibn Abi Shayba related with his own transmission that he (Ibn Mas’ud) said: “I swear by Him besides Whom there is no God that it refers to singing.” (132/5)

The great Companion and exegete of the Qur’an, Sayyiduna Abd Allah ibn Abbas (Allah be pleased with him) states:

“The meaning of the word is music, singing and the like.” (Sunan al-Bayhaqi, 1/221& Musannaf Ibn abi Shayba, 132/5)

He also stated:

“Music and the purchase of female singers.” (Musannaf Ibn Abi Shayba, 132/5)

Hasan al-Basri (Allah be pleased with him) said:

“This verse was revealed in relation to singing and musical instruments.” (Tafsir ibn Kathir, 3/442)

The same explanation has also been narrated from Mujahid, Ikrima, Ibrahim Nakha’i, Mak’hul and others (may Allah be pleased with them all).

The above verse of the Qur’an, along with the statements regarding its meaning is clear in the prohibition of music. It also serves as a severe warning for those who are involved in the trade of music in any way, shape or form, as Allah warned them of “Humiliating punishment”.

As for those that say, the verse refers to things that prevent one from the remembrance of Allah and not music, they do not contradict the aforementioned explanation. The interpretation of the verse with “things that prevent one from the remembrance of Allah” is a more general interpretation which includes music and song, as one of the foremost things that stop you from the remembrance of Allah is music. This is the reason why the majority of the exegetes of the Qur’an have interpreted the verse with music only, or with all those acts that prevent one from the truth with music being at the forefront.

2) Allah Most High says whilst describing the attributes of the servants of the Most Compassionate (ibad al-Rahman):

“Those who witness no falsehood, and if they pass by futility, they pass by it with honourable avoidance.” (Surah al-Furqan, V. 72)

Imam Abu Bakr al-Jassas relates from Sayyiduna Imam Abu Hanifah (Allah be pleased with him) that the meaning of “falsehood (zur)” is music & song. (Ahkam al-Qur’an, 3/428)

3) Allah Most High said to Shaytan:

“Lead to destruction those whom you can among them with your (seductive) voice.” (Surah al-Isra, V.64)

One of the great exegete, Mujahid (Allah have mercy on him) interpreted the word “voice (sawt)” by music, singing, dancing and idle things. (Ruh al-Ma’ani, 15/111)

Imam Suyuti (Allah have mercy on him) quoted Mujahid as saying: “Voice (in this verse) is singing and flute.” (al-Iklil fi istinbat al-tanzil, 1444)

Another exegete, Dahhak (Allah have mercy on him) also interpreted the word “Sawt” with flutes. (Qurtubi, al-Jami` li Ahkam al-Qur’an, 10/288)

Here also, a general interpretation can be given, as indeed some commentators of the Qur’an have done, but this, as mentioned earlier, does not contradict the meaning given by Mujahid and Dahhak, as it is included in the more broad and general meaning.

Guidance of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace)

The are many Ahadith of the blessed Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) which prohibit music and the usage of musical instruments to the extent that some scholars have gathered approximately forty Ahadith, of which the chain of transmission of some is authentic (sahih), some sound (hasan) and some weak (da’if). We will only mention a few here:

1) Sayyiduna Abu Malik al-Ash’ari (Allah be pleased with him) reports that he heard the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) say: “There will appear people in my Ummah, who will hold adultery, silk, alcohol and musical instruments to be lawful.” (Sahih al-Bukhari)

2) Abu Malik al-Ash’ari (Allah be pleased with him) narrates a similar type of Hadith, but a different wording. He reports that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “Soon there will be people from my Ummah who will consume alcohol, they will change its name (by regarding it permissible. m), on there heads will be instruments of music and singing. Allah will make the ground swallow them up, and turn them into monkeys and swine.” (Sahih Ibn Hibban & Sunan Ibn Majah, with a sound chain of narration)

In the above two narrations, the word ma’azif is used. The scholars of the Arabic language are unanimous on the fact that it refers to musical instruments. (Ibn Manzur, Lisan al-Arab, V.9, P.189)

The prohibition of musical instruments is clear in these two narrations. The first Hadith (recorded in Sahih al-Bukhari) mentions that certain people from the Ummah of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give peace) will try to justify the permissibility of using musical instruments, along with adultery, silk and alcohol, despite these things being unlawful (haram) in Shariah.

Moreover, by mentioning music with the likes of adultery and alcohol just shows how severe the sin is. The one who attempts to permit music is similar to the one who permits alcohol or adultery.

The second Hadith describes the fate of such people in that the ground will be ordered to swallow them and they will be turned into monkeys and swine (May Allah save us all). The warning is specific to those that will hold music, alcohol, silk and adultery to be permissible. It is something that should be of concern for those who try and justify any of these things.

Also, to say that music will only be unlawful if it is in combination with alcohol, adultery and silk is incorrect. If this was the case, then why is it that the exception is only for music from the four things? The same could also be said for adultery, alcohol and silk. One may then even justify that alcohol and adultery is also permissible unless if they are consumed in combination with the other things!

Thus, the above two narrations of the beloved of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) are clear proof on the impermissibility of music and songs.

3) Imran ibn Husain (Allah be pleased with him) reports that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “This Ummah will experience the swallowing up of some people by the earth, metamorphosis of some into animals, and being rained upon with stones”. A man from amongst the Muslims asked: “O Messenger of Allah! When will this be?” He said: “When female singers and musical instruments appear and alcohol will (commonly) be consumed.” (Recorded by Imam Tirmidhi, Imam Ibn Majah in their respective Sunan collections, and the wording here is of Sunan Tirmidhi)

4) Sayyiduna Ali ibn Talib (Allah be pleased with him) reports that the blessed Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “When my Ummah begin doing fifteen things, they will be inflicted with tribulations, and (from those 15 things He said): “When female singers and musical instruments become common.” (Sunan Tirmidhi)

5) Na’fi reports that once Abd Allah ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with them both) heard the sound of a Sheppard’s flute. He put his fingers in his ears, turned his mule away from the road and said: “O Nafi’! Can you hear? I (Nafi’) replied with the affirmative. He carried on walking (with his fingers in his ears) until I said: “the sound has ceased” He removed his fingers from his ears, came back on to the road and said: “I saw the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) doing the same when he heard the flute of the Sheppard.” (Recorded by Imam Ahmad in his Musnad and Abu Dawud & Ibn Majah in their Sunans)

6) Sayyiduna Abd Allah ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with him) reports that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “Verily Allah has forbidden alcohol, gambling, drum and guitar, and every intoxicant is haram.” (Musnad Ahmad & Sunan Abu Dawud)

7) Abu Umama (Allah be pleased with him) reports that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give peace) said: “Allah Mighty and Majestic sent me as a guidance and mercy to believers and commanded me to do away with musical instruments, flutes, strings, crucifixes, and the affairs of the pre-Islamic period of ignorance.”(Musnad Ahmad & Abu Dawud Tayalisi)

8) Sayyiduna Abd Allah ibn Mas’ud (Allah be pleased with him) reports that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “Song makes hypocrisy grow in the heart as water does herbage.” (Sunan al-Bayhaqi)

9) Sayyiduna Anas (Allah be pleased with him) reports that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give peace) said: “On the day of Resurrection, Allah will pour molten lead into the ears of whoever sits listening to a songstress.” (Recorded by Ibn Asakir & Ibn al-Misri)

10) Sayyiduna Abu Huraira (Allah be pleased with him) reports that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “Bell is the flute of Shaytan.” (Sahih Muslim & Sunan Abu Dawud)

There are many more narrations of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give peace) in prohibition of musical instruments and unlawful singing. I have merely mentioned a few here as an example.

The great Imam of the Shafi’i school, Imam Ibn Hajr al-Haytami gathered all these Ahadith which approximately total to forty in his excellent work ‘Kaff al-Ra’a an Muharramat al-Lahw wa al-Sama’, and then said: “All of this is explicit and compelling textual evidence that musical instruments of all types are unlawful.” (2/270)

Statements of the Jurists (fuqaha)

The great Hanafi jurist, Imam al-Kasani states:

“If a singer gathers people around him only to entertain them with his voice, then he will not be considered an upright person (a’dil), even though if he does not consume alcohol, as he will be considered the leader of sinners. If however, he only sings to himself in order to eradicate loneliness, then there is nothing wrong in doing so.

As far as the one who uses musical instruments is concerned, if the instruments themselves are not unlawful, such as the bamboo and tambourine, then there is nothing wrong with that and he will still be considered upright. However, if the instrument is unlawful, such as the lute and the like, then he will not be considered an upright person (to be a witness in the court. m), as these instruments can never be considered lawful.” (Bada’I al-Sana’i, 6/269)

It is stated in Khulasat al-Fatawa:

“Listening to the sound of musical instruments is unlawful (haram), as the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “Listening to songs is a sin.” (4/345)

Imam Ibn al-Humam, the great Hanafi Mujtahid makes a decisive statement in his famous Fath al-Qadir:

“Unlawful (haram) singing is when the theme of the song consists of unlawful things, such as the description of a particular living person’s beauty and features, the virtues of wine that provoke wine-drinking, the details and particulars of family affairs or those songs that mock and ridicule others.

However, songs that are free from such unlawful things and they consist of descriptions of the natural things, such as flowers and streams, etc… will be permissible. Yes, if they are accompanied by musical instruments, then it will be unlawful even if the song is full of advice and wisdom, not because of what the songs consist of, rather due to the musical instruments that are played with it. And it is stated in the al-Mugni of Ibn Qudamah (Hanbali Madhhab) that musical instruments are of two types:

1) Unlawful, Such as those that are specially designed for entertainment and singing, like the flute and mandolin, etc;

2) Lawful, like the playing of the tambourine (daff) at weddings and other happy occasions.” (See: Ibn Humam, Fath al-Qadir, 6/36)

The same has more or less been mentioned in the other Hanafi works also, such as al-Ikhtiyar, al-Bahr al-Ra’iq, al-Fatawa al-Hindiyya and others.

Imam an-Nawawi, the great Hadith and Shafi’i scholar states:

“It is unlawful to use or listen to musical instruments, such as, those which the drinkers are known for, like the mandolin, lute, cymbals, and flute. It is permissible to play the tambourine (daff) at weddings, circumcisions and other times, even if it has bells on its sides. Beating the Kuba, a long drum with a narrow middle, is also unlawful.” (Mugni al-Muhtaj, 4/429, & Reliance of the traveller, 775)

There are many other statements of the Fuqaha and scholars such al-Qurtubi, and in each of the four Madhhabs, but due to the length of the article, I will suffice with the above.

As for those who hold music to be lawful usually present the Hadith of Sahih al-Bukhari in which two girls were singing in the presence of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) and Sayyida A’isha (Allah be pleased with her).

However, the permissibility of music can not be justified with this Hadith. The Hadith expert, Hafidh Ibn Hajr al-Asqalani has refuted this claim in length in his Fath al-Bari, 2/345).

Firstly, these young girls were singing without any unlawful musical instruments and secondly, the content of the song was regarding war, thus perfectly lawful. Also, they were not professional singers as the words of the Hadith clearly indicate.

Some try to justify music with the Hadith in which the permissibility of playing the tambourine (daff) is mentioned.

However, as stated in the works of the Fuqaha, to play the tambourine is permissible at weddings, as it is not designed for sole entertainment and pleasure, rather for announcement, etc…

Conclusion

In the light of the above evidences from the Qur’an, sayings of our beloved Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give peace) and texts of the various Fuqaha, the following is the decisive ruling with regards to music:

Musical instruments that are solely designed for entertainment are unlawful, with or without singing. However, to play the tambourine (daf) at weddings (and other occasions according to some fuqaha) will be permissible.

As far as the songs are concerned, if they consist of anything that is unlawful or they prevent one from the obligatory duties, then they will be unlawful. However, if they are free from the abovementioned things (and they are not accompanied by instruments), then it will be permissible to sing them.

And Allah knows best .                                                

Shaykh Mufti) Muhammad ibn Adam Darul Iftaa Leicester , UK

What does Islam say about Music and Singing? Answered by (Shaykh Mufti) Muhammad ibn Adam Darul Iftaa Leicester , UK

In the name of Allah, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful, The worst-case scenario in the event of being inflicted with a disease is when the one involved refuses to believe that he has been inflicted with that disease. The way this phenomenon is accepted and recognised in diseases and illnesses that affect the physical body, it is also true with regards to spiritual diseases and ailments.

When a person commits a sin (May Allah save us all) believing that a sin is being committed and feels regret and remorse in the heart, then this is far better than committing the sin and believing it to be lawful (halal). In the former situation, only one sin is being committed, and it is very likely that the individual may repent out of the remorse felt in the heart. In the latter case, however, in addition to the sin being committed, there is the greater sin of trying to justify it. Normally, such an individual does not receive the guidance to repent from his sin. (May Allah save us all, Ameen)

Music and Singing

The case with music and unlawful singing is the same. It has been decisively prohibited in Shariah, as the evidences mentioned further along will illustrate. Yet there are individuals who are not ready to believe that it is unlawful (haram).

In the modern era, music has spread to such an extent that nobody is free from it. Individuals are confronted with situations where they are forced to listen to music. It is played nearly in all department stores and supermarkets. If you sit in a taxi, make a phone call or even walk down the street, you will not be saved from this evil. Young Muslims drive around in their cars with the music fully blasted. The increasing popularity of music, which is prevalent in our society, poses a great threat to the Muslims.

Music is a direct ploy of the non-Muslims. One of the main causes for the decline of the Muslims is their involvement in useless entertainment. Today we see that Muslims are involved, and at the forefront perhaps, of many immoralities and evils. The spiritual power which once was the trait of a Muslim is nowhere to be seen. One of the main reasons for this is music and useless entertainment.

Harms and effects of music

We should be aware that nothing has been prohibited by the Almighty Creator except that which is harmful to the Muslims and the society as a whole. There are great harms and ill-effects of music.

Islam totally forbids adultery and also those things that lead to it. Allah Most High says:

“And do not (even) come near to adultery, for it is a shameful deed and an evil, opening the road (to other evils).” (al-Isra, 32)

Islam does not only prohibit adultery and fornication, but also those things that may lead to it. This is the reason why the Qur’an orders Muslim men and women to lower their gazes. It prohibits one from being alone with someone of the opposite sex (khalwa). Informal interaction with the opposite sex has also been made unlawful.

This is also one of the main reasons for the prohibition of music, as it effects one’s emotions, creates arousal, passion and excitement, and also leads to various physiological changes in the person. It is a psychological proven fact that two things are instrumental in arousing the human sexual desire, one being the voice of a female (for males) and the other music.

This is the reason why Allah Most High says:

“O wives of the prophet! You are not like other women, if you are god-fearing. So do not be soft in speech. Lest in whose heart is disease should be moved with desire.” (Surah al-Ahzab, v. 32)

Thus, Islam forbids listening to the female voice with lust and desire. The great Hanafi Jurist, Imam Ibn Abidin (Allah have mercy on him) states:

“It is permissible for women to converse with non-Mahram men at the time of need (and vice versa). However, what is not permissible is that they stretch, soften and raise their voice in a melodious way.” (Radd al-Muhtar, V.1, P. 406)

Similarly, it is also unlawful for women to listen to the voice of non-Mahram men with lust and desire. One of the great western thinkers said: “The voice is one of the quickest ways that make a woman fall in love with a man. This is the reason why many women adore singers.”

The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) was also wary of this fact when he said to the Companion Bara ibn Malik: “O Bara! Let not the women here your voice.” (Kanz al-Ummal, 7/322) The same has also been reported from the Companion Anjasha (Allah be pleased with him).

Physical Effect of Music

Experiments carried out by doctors and researchers confirm that music is such that it does not only affect the brain, but each and every organ of the body. There is a close relationship between music and bodily movements.

It is also proved that music affects one’s emotions, increases arousal in terms of alertness and excitement and also leads to various psychological changes in the person. In a psychological experiment, it was found that listening to moderate type of music increased one’s normal heart beat, whilst listening to rock music the heart beat increased even further, yet people claim that music has no effect.

In conclusion, music and the instruments used for singing are a cause for arousing the sexual desire of an individual. It could lead a person to adultery and fornication. Therefore, Islam takes the preventive measure rather than suffer the consequences. This is also one of the principles of Islamic Jurisprudence, namely ‘blocking the means’ (sadd al-dhara'i). This is based on the idea of preventing an evil before it actually materializes, and is taken from the heart of the guidance of the Qur’an and Sunnah that, “Preventing harm is given precedence even to achieving possible benefits.”

Becoming Heedless of Allah

One of the harms of music is that it distracts one from his Creator. It serves as a temporary means of pleasure and satisfaction, which makes one forget who he really is and why he was created. This is the reason why musical instruments are known in the Arabic language as ‘malaahi’ meaning instruments that prevent one from the remembrance of Allah Almighty.

Human has been created for a noble purpose. Allah Most High says:

“I have created jinn and humans only that they serve (worship) me.” (Surah al-Dhariyat, 56)

Music and temporary entertainments sink the human in physical pleasures and prevent him/her from true spiritual gains. In conclusion, music has a great role to play in preventing a human from realising the purpose of creation.

Un-Islamic Values

Another harm of music is that it instils the ideologies of the non-Muslims in the heart and mind. The messages of today’s music follow a general theme of love, fornication, drugs and freedom.

We find that the whole world is obsessed with the Kufr idea of unrestrained freedom, i.e. freedom of speech and movement, etc… This idea of freedom, “it’s my life, I’ll do what I want” is a predominant theme of music today. It is used as a means of drilling western ideologies into the hearts and minds, which are totally contrary to Islamic values and teachings.

The Difference between Legal Wisdom and Legal Reason

The above are just some of the harms and evil effects of music. One must remember here that these are the wisdoms for the prohibition of music and not the reason (illah). The Shariah ruling is based upon the reason, and not the wisdom. In other words if the harms for the prohibition of music are taken care of, it will not make music permissible.

An example for this is that the wisdom behind the prohibition of wine and alcohol is that it creates enmity and hatred between people and it hinders one from the remembrance of Allah. The reason, however, is that it is an intoxicating substance. Now, if one was to say that wine will be Halal for me, as I will lock myself up after drinking wine, thus no destruction will be caused. Any sane person will conclude that he is wrong, as wine is Haram whether you cause any destruction and damage to others or not. The reason being is that the cause (illa) for the prohibition of wine is intoxication, regardless of whether the wisdom (hikma) is present or not.

The same is with music. If one is saved from the abovementioned harms, even then music will still remain Haram. It can not be held lawful even if one is saved from its harms. This is a well established principle in the science of Usul al-Fiqh.

Ruling on musical instruments and unlawful singing

In light of the evidences that will be mentioned shortly, the following are unlawful in Shariah:

a) Musical instruments that are exclusively designed for entertainment and dancing, and create charm, pleasure and bliss on their own (even without the singing), such as the drum, violin, guitar, fiddle, flute, lute, mandolin, harmonium, piano, string, etc are all impermissible and unlawful (haram) to use.

There is a consensus of the whole Ummah on this. Since the first century, the Companions (sahaba), their followers (tabi’in), jurists (fuqaha) and the scholars have been generally unanimous on this ruling.

b) Singing that is a cause for a sin is also unlawful with the consensus of all the scholars, such as songs that prevent one from the obligatory (fard & wajib).

c) Any singing that is accompanied by other sins, such as songs that consist of unlawful, immoral, and sexual themes, or it is sang by non-Mahram women, etc will also be unlawful. This ruling is also with the consensus of all the scholars.

Evidences

There are numerous evidences in the Qur’an and Sunnah which support this view. We will attempt to look at a few:

1) Allah Most High says:

“And there are among men, those that purchase idle tales, to mislead (men) from the path of Allah and throw ridicule. For such there will be a humiliating punishment.” (Surah Luqman, V. 6)

The great Companion Sayyiduna Abd Allah ibn Mas’ud (Allah be pleased with him) states in the explanation of the word “idle tales”:

“By Allah its meaning is music.” (Sunan al-Bayhaqi, 1/223 & authenticated by al-Hakim in his Mustadrak, 2/411)

Imam Ibn Abi Shayba related with his own transmission that he (Ibn Mas’ud) said: “I swear by Him besides Whom there is no God that it refers to singing.” (132/5)

The great Companion and exegete of the Qur’an, Sayyiduna Abd Allah ibn Abbas (Allah be pleased with him) states:

“The meaning of the word is music, singing and the like.” (Sunan al-Bayhaqi, 1/221& Musannaf Ibn abi Shayba, 132/5)

He also stated:

“Music and the purchase of female singers.” (Musannaf Ibn Abi Shayba, 132/5)

Hasan al-Basri (Allah be pleased with him) said:

“This verse was revealed in relation to singing and musical instruments.” (Tafsir ibn Kathir, 3/442)

The same explanation has also been narrated from Mujahid, Ikrima, Ibrahim Nakha’i, Mak’hul and others (may Allah be pleased with them all).

The above verse of the Qur’an, along with the statements regarding its meaning is clear in the prohibition of music. It also serves as a severe warning for those who are involved in the trade of music in any way, shape or form, as Allah warned them of “Humiliating punishment”.

As for those that say, the verse refers to things that prevent one from the remembrance of Allah and not music, they do not contradict the aforementioned explanation. The interpretation of the verse with “things that prevent one from the remembrance of Allah” is a more general interpretation which includes music and song, as one of the foremost things that stop you from the remembrance of Allah is music. This is the reason why the majority of the exegetes of the Qur’an have interpreted the verse with music only, or with all those acts that prevent one from the truth with music being at the forefront.

2) Allah Most High says whilst describing the attributes of the servants of the Most Compassionate (ibad al-Rahman):

“Those who witness no falsehood, and if they pass by futility, they pass by it with honourable avoidance.” (Surah al-Furqan, V. 72)

Imam Abu Bakr al-Jassas relates from Sayyiduna Imam Abu Hanifah (Allah be pleased with him) that the meaning of “falsehood (zur)” is music & song. (Ahkam al-Qur’an, 3/428)

3) Allah Most High said to Shaytan:

“Lead to destruction those whom you can among them with your (seductive) voice.” (Surah al-Isra, V.64)

One of the great exegete, Mujahid (Allah have mercy on him) interpreted the word “voice (sawt)” by music, singing, dancing and idle things. (Ruh al-Ma’ani, 15/111)

Imam Suyuti (Allah have mercy on him) quoted Mujahid as saying: “Voice (in this verse) is singing and flute.” (al-Iklil fi istinbat al-tanzil, 1444)

Another exegete, Dahhak (Allah have mercy on him) also interpreted the word “Sawt” with flutes. (Qurtubi, al-Jami` li Ahkam al-Qur’an, 10/288)

Here also, a general interpretation can be given, as indeed some commentators of the Qur’an have done, but this, as mentioned earlier, does not contradict the meaning given by Mujahid and Dahhak, as it is included in the more broad and general meaning.

Guidance of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace)

The are many Ahadith of the blessed Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) which prohibit music and the usage of musical instruments to the extent that some scholars have gathered approximately forty Ahadith, of which the chain of transmission of some is authentic (sahih), some sound (hasan) and some weak (da’if). We will only mention a few here:

1) Sayyiduna Abu Malik al-Ash’ari (Allah be pleased with him) reports that he heard the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) say: “There will appear people in my Ummah, who will hold adultery, silk, alcohol and musical instruments to be lawful.” (Sahih al-Bukhari)

2) Abu Malik al-Ash’ari (Allah be pleased with him) narrates a similar type of Hadith, but a different wording. He reports that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “Soon there will be people from my Ummah who will consume alcohol, they will change its name (by regarding it permissible. m), on there heads will be instruments of music and singing. Allah will make the ground swallow them up, and turn them into monkeys and swine.” (Sahih Ibn Hibban & Sunan Ibn Majah, with a sound chain of narration)

In the above two narrations, the word ma’azif is used. The scholars of the Arabic language are unanimous on the fact that it refers to musical instruments. (Ibn Manzur, Lisan al-Arab, V.9, P.189)

The prohibition of musical instruments is clear in these two narrations. The first Hadith (recorded in Sahih al-Bukhari) mentions that certain people from the Ummah of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give peace) will try to justify the permissibility of using musical instruments, along with adultery, silk and alcohol, despite these things being unlawful (haram) in Shariah.

Moreover, by mentioning music with the likes of adultery and alcohol just shows how severe the sin is. The one who attempts to permit music is similar to the one who permits alcohol or adultery.

The second Hadith describes the fate of such people in that the ground will be ordered to swallow them and they will be turned into monkeys and swine (May Allah save us all). The warning is specific to those that will hold music, alcohol, silk and adultery to be permissible. It is something that should be of concern for those who try and justify any of these things.

Also, to say that music will only be unlawful if it is in combination with alcohol, adultery and silk is incorrect. If this was the case, then why is it that the exception is only for music from the four things? The same could also be said for adultery, alcohol and silk. One may then even justify that alcohol and adultery is also permissible unless if they are consumed in combination with the other things!

Thus, the above two narrations of the beloved of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) are clear proof on the impermissibility of music and songs.

3) Imran ibn Husain (Allah be pleased with him) reports that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “This Ummah will experience the swallowing up of some people by the earth, metamorphosis of some into animals, and being rained upon with stones”. A man from amongst the Muslims asked: “O Messenger of Allah! When will this be?” He said: “When female singers and musical instruments appear and alcohol will (commonly) be consumed.” (Recorded by Imam Tirmidhi, Imam Ibn Majah in their respective Sunan collections, and the wording here is of Sunan Tirmidhi)

4) Sayyiduna Ali ibn Talib (Allah be pleased with him) reports that the blessed Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “When my Ummah begin doing fifteen things, they will be inflicted with tribulations, and (from those 15 things He said): “When female singers and musical instruments become common.” (Sunan Tirmidhi)

5) Na’fi reports that once Abd Allah ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with them both) heard the sound of a Sheppard’s flute. He put his fingers in his ears, turned his mule away from the road and said: “O Nafi’! Can you hear? I (Nafi’) replied with the affirmative. He carried on walking (with his fingers in his ears) until I said: “the sound has ceased” He removed his fingers from his ears, came back on to the road and said: “I saw the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) doing the same when he heard the flute of the Sheppard.” (Recorded by Imam Ahmad in his Musnad and Abu Dawud & Ibn Majah in their Sunans)

6) Sayyiduna Abd Allah ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with him) reports that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “Verily Allah has forbidden alcohol, gambling, drum and guitar, and every intoxicant is haram.” (Musnad Ahmad & Sunan Abu Dawud)

7) Abu Umama (Allah be pleased with him) reports that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give peace) said: “Allah Mighty and Majestic sent me as a guidance and mercy to believers and commanded me to do away with musical instruments, flutes, strings, crucifixes, and the affairs of the pre-Islamic period of ignorance.”(Musnad Ahmad & Abu Dawud Tayalisi)

8) Sayyiduna Abd Allah ibn Mas’ud (Allah be pleased with him) reports that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “Song makes hypocrisy grow in the heart as water does herbage.” (Sunan al-Bayhaqi)

9) Sayyiduna Anas (Allah be pleased with him) reports that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give peace) said: “On the day of Resurrection, Allah will pour molten lead into the ears of whoever sits listening to a songstress.” (Recorded by Ibn Asakir & Ibn al-Misri)

10) Sayyiduna Abu Huraira (Allah be pleased with him) reports that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “Bell is the flute of Shaytan.” (Sahih Muslim & Sunan Abu Dawud)

There are many more narrations of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give peace) in prohibition of musical instruments and unlawful singing. I have merely mentioned a few here as an example.

The great Imam of the Shafi’i school, Imam Ibn Hajr al-Haytami gathered all these Ahadith which approximately total to forty in his excellent work ‘Kaff al-Ra’a an Muharramat al-Lahw wa al-Sama’, and then said: “All of this is explicit and compelling textual evidence that musical instruments of all types are unlawful.” (2/270)

Statements of the Jurists (fuqaha)

The great Hanafi jurist, Imam al-Kasani states:

“If a singer gathers people around him only to entertain them with his voice, then he will not be considered an upright person (a’dil), even though if he does not consume alcohol, as he will be considered the leader of sinners. If however, he only sings to himself in order to eradicate loneliness, then there is nothing wrong in doing so.

As far as the one who uses musical instruments is concerned, if the instruments themselves are not unlawful, such as the bamboo and tambourine, then there is nothing wrong with that and he will still be considered upright. However, if the instrument is unlawful, such as the lute and the like, then he will not be considered an upright person (to be a witness in the court. m), as these instruments can never be considered lawful.” (Bada’I al-Sana’i, 6/269)

It is stated in Khulasat al-Fatawa:

“Listening to the sound of musical instruments is unlawful (haram), as the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “Listening to songs is a sin.” (4/345)

Imam Ibn al-Humam, the great Hanafi Mujtahid makes a decisive statement in his famous Fath al-Qadir:

“Unlawful (haram) singing is when the theme of the song consists of unlawful things, such as the description of a particular living person’s beauty and features, the virtues of wine that provoke wine-drinking, the details and particulars of family affairs or those songs that mock and ridicule others.

However, songs that are free from such unlawful things and they consist of descriptions of the natural things, such as flowers and streams, etc… will be permissible. Yes, if they are accompanied by musical instruments, then it will be unlawful even if the song is full of advice and wisdom, not because of what the songs consist of, rather due to the musical instruments that are played with it. And it is stated in the al-Mugni of Ibn Qudamah (Hanbali Madhhab) that musical instruments are of two types:

1) Unlawful, Such as those that are specially designed for entertainment and singing, like the flute and mandolin, etc;

2) Lawful, like the playing of the tambourine (daff) at weddings and other happy occasions.” (See: Ibn Humam, Fath al-Qadir, 6/36)

The same has more or less been mentioned in the other Hanafi works also, such as al-Ikhtiyar, al-Bahr al-Ra’iq, al-Fatawa al-Hindiyya and others.

Imam an-Nawawi, the great Hadith and Shafi’i scholar states:

“It is unlawful to use or listen to musical instruments, such as, those which the drinkers are known for, like the mandolin, lute, cymbals, and flute. It is permissible to play the tambourine (daff) at weddings, circumcisions and other times, even if it has bells on its sides. Beating the Kuba, a long drum with a narrow middle, is also unlawful.” (Mugni al-Muhtaj, 4/429, & Reliance of the traveller, 775)

There are many other statements of the Fuqaha and scholars such al-Qurtubi, and in each of the four Madhhabs, but due to the length of the article, I will suffice with the above.

As for those who hold music to be lawful usually present the Hadith of Sahih al-Bukhari in which two girls were singing in the presence of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) and Sayyida A’isha (Allah be pleased with her).

However, the permissibility of music can not be justified with this Hadith. The Hadith expert, Hafidh Ibn Hajr al-Asqalani has refuted this claim in length in his Fath al-Bari, 2/345).

Firstly, these young girls were singing without any unlawful musical instruments and secondly, the content of the song was regarding war, thus perfectly lawful. Also, they were not professional singers as the words of the Hadith clearly indicate.

Some try to justify music with the Hadith in which the permissibility of playing the tambourine (daff) is mentioned.

However, as stated in the works of the Fuqaha, to play the tambourine is permissible at weddings, as it is not designed for sole entertainment and pleasure, rather for announcement, etc…

Conclusion

In the light of the above evidences from the Qur’an, sayings of our beloved Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give peace) and texts of the various Fuqaha, the following is the decisive ruling with regards to music:

Musical instruments that are solely designed for entertainment are unlawful, with or without singing. However, to play the tambourine (daf) at weddings (and other occasions according to some fuqaha) will be permissible.

As far as the songs are concerned, if they consist of anything that is unlawful or they prevent one from the obligatory duties, then they will be unlawful. However, if they are free from the abovementioned things (and they are not accompanied by instruments), then it will be permissible to sing them.

And Allah knows best .

What does Islam say about Music and Singing? Answered by (Shaykh Mufti) Muhammad ibn Adam Darul Iftaa Leicester , UK

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In the name of Allah, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful, The worst-case scenario in the event of being inflicted with a disease is when the one involved refuses to believe that he has been inflicted with that disease. The way this phenomenon is accepted and recognised in diseases and illnesses that affect the physical body, it is also true with regards to spiritual diseases and ailments.

When a person commits a sin (May Allah save us all) believing that a sin is being committed and feels regret and remorse in the heart, then this is far better than committing the sin and believing it to be lawful (halal). In the former situation, only one sin is being committed, and it is very likely that the individual may repent out of the remorse felt in the heart. In the latter case, however, in addition to the sin being committed, there is the greater sin of trying to justify it. Normally, such an individual does not receive the guidance to repent from his sin. (May Allah save us all, Ameen)

Music and Singing

The case with music and unlawful singing is the same. It has been decisively prohibited in Shariah, as the evidences mentioned further along will illustrate. Yet there are individuals who are not ready to believe that it is unlawful (haram).

In the modern era, music has spread to such an extent that nobody is free from it. Individuals are confronted with situations where they are forced to listen to music. It is played nearly in all department stores and supermarkets. If you sit in a taxi, make a phone call or even walk down the street, you will not be saved from this evil. Young Muslims drive around in their cars with the music fully blasted. The increasing popularity of music, which is prevalent in our society, poses a great threat to the Muslims.

Music is a direct ploy of the non-Muslims. One of the main causes for the decline of the Muslims is their involvement in useless entertainment. Today we see that Muslims are involved, and at the forefront perhaps, of many immoralities and evils. The spiritual power which once was the trait of a Muslim is nowhere to be seen. One of the main reasons for this is music and useless entertainment.

Harms and effects of music

We should be aware that nothing has been prohibited by the Almighty Creator except that which is harmful to the Muslims and the society as a whole. There are great harms and ill-effects of music.

Islam totally forbids adultery and also those things that lead to it. Allah Most High says:

“And do not (even) come near to adultery, for it is a shameful deed and an evil, opening the road (to other evils).” (al-Isra, 32)

Islam does not only prohibit adultery and fornication, but also those things that may lead to it. This is the reason why the Qur’an orders Muslim men and women to lower their gazes. It prohibits one from being alone with someone of the opposite sex (khalwa). Informal interaction with the opposite sex has also been made unlawful.

This is also one of the main reasons for the prohibition of music, as it effects one’s emotions, creates arousal, passion and excitement, and also leads to various physiological changes in the person. It is a psychological proven fact that two things are instrumental in arousing the human sexual desire, one being the voice of a female (for males) and the other music.

This is the reason why Allah Most High says:

“O wives of the prophet! You are not like other women, if you are god-fearing. So do not be soft in speech. Lest in whose heart is disease should be moved with desire.” (Surah al-Ahzab, v. 32)

Thus, Islam forbids listening to the female voice with lust and desire. The great Hanafi Jurist, Imam Ibn Abidin (Allah have mercy on him) states:

“It is permissible for women to converse with non-Mahram men at the time of need (and vice versa). However, what is not permissible is that they stretch, soften and raise their voice in a melodious way.” (Radd al-Muhtar, V.1, P. 406)

Similarly, it is also unlawful for women to listen to the voice of non-Mahram men with lust and desire. One of the great western thinkers said: “The voice is one of the quickest ways that make a woman fall in love with a man. This is the reason why many women adore singers.”

The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) was also wary of this fact when he said to the Companion Bara ibn Malik: “O Bara! Let not the women here your voice.” (Kanz al-Ummal, 7/322) The same has also been reported from the Companion Anjasha (Allah be pleased with him).

Physical Effect of Music

Experiments carried out by doctors and researchers confirm that music is such that it does not only affect the brain, but each and every organ of the body. There is a close relationship between music and bodily movements.

It is also proved that music affects one’s emotions, increases arousal in terms of alertness and excitement and also leads to various psychological changes in the person. In a psychological experiment, it was found that listening to moderate type of music increased one’s normal heart beat, whilst listening to rock music the heart beat increased even further, yet people claim that music has no effect.

In conclusion, music and the instruments used for singing are a cause for arousing the sexual desire of an individual. It could lead a person to adultery and fornication. Therefore, Islam takes the preventive measure rather than suffer the consequences. This is also one of the principles of Islamic Jurisprudence, namely ‘blocking the means’ (sadd al-dhara'i). This is based on the idea of preventing an evil before it actually materializes, and is taken from the heart of the guidance of the Qur’an and Sunnah that, “Preventing harm is given precedence even to achieving possible benefits.”

Becoming Heedless of Allah

One of the harms of music is that it distracts one from his Creator. It serves as a temporary means of pleasure and satisfaction, which makes one forget who he really is and why he was created. This is the reason why musical instruments are known in the Arabic language as ‘malaahi’ meaning instruments that prevent one from the remembrance of Allah Almighty.

Human has been created for a noble purpose. Allah Most High says:

“I have created jinn and humans only that they serve (worship) me.” (Surah al-Dhariyat, 56)

Music and temporary entertainments sink the human in physical pleasures and prevent him/her from true spiritual gains. In conclusion, music has a great role to play in preventing a human from realising the purpose of creation.

Un-Islamic Values

Another harm of music is that it instils the ideologies of the non-Muslims in the heart and mind. The messages of today’s music follow a general theme of love, fornication, drugs and freedom.

We find that the whole world is obsessed with the Kufr idea of unrestrained freedom, i.e. freedom of speech and movement, etc… This idea of freedom, “it’s my life, I’ll do what I want” is a predominant theme of music today. It is used as a means of drilling western ideologies into the hearts and minds, which are totally contrary to Islamic values and teachings.

The Difference between Legal Wisdom and Legal Reason

The above are just some of the harms and evil effects of music. One must remember here that these are the wisdoms for the prohibition of music and not the reason (illah). The Shariah ruling is based upon the reason, and not the wisdom. In other words if the harms for the prohibition of music are taken care of, it will not make music permissible.

An example for this is that the wisdom behind the prohibition of wine and alcohol is that it creates enmity and hatred between people and it hinders one from the remembrance of Allah. The reason, however, is that it is an intoxicating substance. Now, if one was to say that wine will be Halal for me, as I will lock myself up after drinking wine, thus no destruction will be caused. Any sane person will conclude that he is wrong, as wine is Haram whether you cause any destruction and damage to others or not. The reason being is that the cause (illa) for the prohibition of wine is intoxication, regardless of whether the wisdom (hikma) is present or not.

The same is with music. If one is saved from the abovementioned harms, even then music will still remain Haram. It can not be held lawful even if one is saved from its harms. This is a well established principle in the science of Usul al-Fiqh.

Ruling on musical instruments and unlawful singing

In light of the evidences that will be mentioned shortly, the following are unlawful in Shariah:

a) Musical instruments that are exclusively designed for entertainment and dancing, and create charm, pleasure and bliss on their own (even without the singing), such as the drum, violin, guitar, fiddle, flute, lute, mandolin, harmonium, piano, string, etc are all impermissible and unlawful (haram) to use.

There is a consensus of the whole Ummah on this. Since the first century, the Companions (sahaba), their followers (tabi’in), jurists (fuqaha) and the scholars have been generally unanimous on this ruling.

b) Singing that is a cause for a sin is also unlawful with the consensus of all the scholars, such as songs that prevent one from the obligatory (fard & wajib).

c) Any singing that is accompanied by other sins, such as songs that consist of unlawful, immoral, and sexual themes, or it is sang by non-Mahram women, etc will also be unlawful. This ruling is also with the consensus of all the scholars.

Evidences

There are numerous evidences in the Qur’an and Sunnah which support this view. We will attempt to look at a few:

1) Allah Most High says:

“And there are among men, those that purchase idle tales, to mislead (men) from the path of Allah and throw ridicule. For such there will be a humiliating punishment.” (Surah Luqman, V. 6)

The great Companion Sayyiduna Abd Allah ibn Mas’ud (Allah be pleased with him) states in the explanation of the word “idle tales”:

“By Allah its meaning is music.” (Sunan al-Bayhaqi, 1/223 & authenticated by al-Hakim in his Mustadrak, 2/411)

Imam Ibn Abi Shayba related with his own transmission that he (Ibn Mas’ud) said: “I swear by Him besides Whom there is no God that it refers to singing.” (132/5)

The great Companion and exegete of the Qur’an, Sayyiduna Abd Allah ibn Abbas (Allah be pleased with him) states:

“The meaning of the word is music, singing and the like.” (Sunan al-Bayhaqi, 1/221& Musannaf Ibn abi Shayba, 132/5)

He also stated:

“Music and the purchase of female singers.” (Musannaf Ibn Abi Shayba, 132/5)

Hasan al-Basri (Allah be pleased with him) said:

“This verse was revealed in relation to singing and musical instruments.” (Tafsir ibn Kathir, 3/442)

The same explanation has also been narrated from Mujahid, Ikrima, Ibrahim Nakha’i, Mak’hul and others (may Allah be pleased with them all).

The above verse of the Qur’an, along with the statements regarding its meaning is clear in the prohibition of music. It also serves as a severe warning for those who are involved in the trade of music in any way, shape or form, as Allah warned them of “Humiliating punishment”.

As for those that say, the verse refers to things that prevent one from the remembrance of Allah and not music, they do not contradict the aforementioned explanation. The interpretation of the verse with “things that prevent one from the remembrance of Allah” is a more general interpretation which includes music and song, as one of the foremost things that stop you from the remembrance of Allah is music. This is the reason why the majority of the exegetes of the Qur’an have interpreted the verse with music only, or with all those acts that prevent one from the truth with music being at the forefront.

2) Allah Most High says whilst describing the attributes of the servants of the Most Compassionate (ibad al-Rahman):

“Those who witness no falsehood, and if they pass by futility, they pass by it with honourable avoidance.” (Surah al-Furqan, V. 72)

Imam Abu Bakr al-Jassas relates from Sayyiduna Imam Abu Hanifah (Allah be pleased with him) that the meaning of “falsehood (zur)” is music & song. (Ahkam al-Qur’an, 3/428)

3) Allah Most High said to Shaytan:

“Lead to destruction those whom you can among them with your (seductive) voice.” (Surah al-Isra, V.64)

One of the great exegete, Mujahid (Allah have mercy on him) interpreted the word “voice (sawt)” by music, singing, dancing and idle things. (Ruh al-Ma’ani, 15/111)

Imam Suyuti (Allah have mercy on him) quoted Mujahid as saying: “Voice (in this verse) is singing and flute.” (al-Iklil fi istinbat al-tanzil, 1444)

Another exegete, Dahhak (Allah have mercy on him) also interpreted the word “Sawt” with flutes. (Qurtubi, al-Jami` li Ahkam al-Qur’an, 10/288)

Here also, a general interpretation can be given, as indeed some commentators of the Qur’an have done, but this, as mentioned earlier, does not contradict the meaning given by Mujahid and Dahhak, as it is included in the more broad and general meaning.

Guidance of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace)

The are many Ahadith of the blessed Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) which prohibit music and the usage of musical instruments to the extent that some scholars have gathered approximately forty Ahadith, of which the chain of transmission of some is authentic (sahih), some sound (hasan) and some weak (da’if). We will only mention a few here:

1) Sayyiduna Abu Malik al-Ash’ari (Allah be pleased with him) reports that he heard the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) say: “There will appear people in my Ummah, who will hold adultery, silk, alcohol and musical instruments to be lawful.” (Sahih al-Bukhari)

2) Abu Malik al-Ash’ari (Allah be pleased with him) narrates a similar type of Hadith, but a different wording. He reports that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “Soon there will be people from my Ummah who will consume alcohol, they will change its name (by regarding it permissible. m), on there heads will be instruments of music and singing. Allah will make the ground swallow them up, and turn them into monkeys and swine.” (Sahih Ibn Hibban & Sunan Ibn Majah, with a sound chain of narration)

In the above two narrations, the word ma’azif is used. The scholars of the Arabic language are unanimous on the fact that it refers to musical instruments. (Ibn Manzur, Lisan al-Arab, V.9, P.189)

The prohibition of musical instruments is clear in these two narrations. The first Hadith (recorded in Sahih al-Bukhari) mentions that certain people from the Ummah of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give peace) will try to justify the permissibility of using musical instruments, along with adultery, silk and alcohol, despite these things being unlawful (haram) in Shariah.

Moreover, by mentioning music with the likes of adultery and alcohol just shows how severe the sin is. The one who attempts to permit music is similar to the one who permits alcohol or adultery.

The second Hadith describes the fate of such people in that the ground will be ordered to swallow them and they will be turned into monkeys and swine (May Allah save us all). The warning is specific to those that will hold music, alcohol, silk and adultery to be permissible. It is something that should be of concern for those who try and justify any of these things.

Also, to say that music will only be unlawful if it is in combination with alcohol, adultery and silk is incorrect. If this was the case, then why is it that the exception is only for music from the four things? The same could also be said for adultery, alcohol and silk. One may then even justify that alcohol and adultery is also permissible unless if they are consumed in combination with the other things!

Thus, the above two narrations of the beloved of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) are clear proof on the impermissibility of music and songs.

3) Imran ibn Husain (Allah be pleased with him) reports that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “This Ummah will experience the swallowing up of some people by the earth, metamorphosis of some into animals, and being rained upon with stones”. A man from amongst the Muslims asked: “O Messenger of Allah! When will this be?” He said: “When female singers and musical instruments appear and alcohol will (commonly) be consumed.” (Recorded by Imam Tirmidhi, Imam Ibn Majah in their respective Sunan collections, and the wording here is of Sunan Tirmidhi)

4) Sayyiduna Ali ibn Talib (Allah be pleased with him) reports that the blessed Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “When my Ummah begin doing fifteen things, they will be inflicted with tribulations, and (from those 15 things He said): “When female singers and musical instruments become common.” (Sunan Tirmidhi)

5) Na’fi reports that once Abd Allah ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with them both) heard the sound of a Sheppard’s flute. He put his fingers in his ears, turned his mule away from the road and said: “O Nafi’! Can you hear? I (Nafi’) replied with the affirmative. He carried on walking (with his fingers in his ears) until I said: “the sound has ceased” He removed his fingers from his ears, came back on to the road and said: “I saw the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) doing the same when he heard the flute of the Sheppard.” (Recorded by Imam Ahmad in his Musnad and Abu Dawud & Ibn Majah in their Sunans)

6) Sayyiduna Abd Allah ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with him) reports that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “Verily Allah has forbidden alcohol, gambling, drum and guitar, and every intoxicant is haram.” (Musnad Ahmad & Sunan Abu Dawud)

7) Abu Umama (Allah be pleased with him) reports that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give peace) said: “Allah Mighty and Majestic sent me as a guidance and mercy to believers and commanded me to do away with musical instruments, flutes, strings, crucifixes, and the affairs of the pre-Islamic period of ignorance.”(Musnad Ahmad & Abu Dawud Tayalisi)

8) Sayyiduna Abd Allah ibn Mas’ud (Allah be pleased with him) reports that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “Song makes hypocrisy grow in the heart as water does herbage.” (Sunan al-Bayhaqi)

9) Sayyiduna Anas (Allah be pleased with him) reports that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give peace) said: “On the day of Resurrection, Allah will pour molten lead into the ears of whoever sits listening to a songstress.” (Recorded by Ibn Asakir & Ibn al-Misri)

10) Sayyiduna Abu Huraira (Allah be pleased with him) reports that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “Bell is the flute of Shaytan.” (Sahih Muslim & Sunan Abu Dawud)

There are many more narrations of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give peace) in prohibition of musical instruments and unlawful singing. I have merely mentioned a few here as an example.

The great Imam of the Shafi’i school, Imam Ibn Hajr al-Haytami gathered all these Ahadith which approximately total to forty in his excellent work ‘Kaff al-Ra’a an Muharramat al-Lahw wa al-Sama’, and then said: “All of this is explicit and compelling textual evidence that musical instruments of all types are unlawful.” (2/270)

Statements of the Jurists (fuqaha)

The great Hanafi jurist, Imam al-Kasani states:

“If a singer gathers people around him only to entertain them with his voice, then he will not be considered an upright person (a’dil), even though if he does not consume alcohol, as he will be considered the leader of sinners. If however, he only sings to himself in order to eradicate loneliness, then there is nothing wrong in doing so.

As far as the one who uses musical instruments is concerned, if the instruments themselves are not unlawful, such as the bamboo and tambourine, then there is nothing wrong with that and he will still be considered upright. However, if the instrument is unlawful, such as the lute and the like, then he will not be considered an upright person (to be a witness in the court. m), as these instruments can never be considered lawful.” (Bada’I al-Sana’i, 6/269)

It is stated in Khulasat al-Fatawa:

“Listening to the sound of musical instruments is unlawful (haram), as the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “Listening to songs is a sin.” (4/345)

Imam Ibn al-Humam, the great Hanafi Mujtahid makes a decisive statement in his famous Fath al-Qadir:

“Unlawful (haram) singing is when the theme of the song consists of unlawful things, such as the description of a particular living person’s beauty and features, the virtues of wine that provoke wine-drinking, the details and particulars of family affairs or those songs that mock and ridicule others.

However, songs that are free from such unlawful things and they consist of descriptions of the natural things, such as flowers and streams, etc… will be permissible. Yes, if they are accompanied by musical instruments, then it will be unlawful even if the song is full of advice and wisdom, not because of what the songs consist of, rather due to the musical instruments that are played with it. And it is stated in the al-Mugni of Ibn Qudamah (Hanbali Madhhab) that musical instruments are of two types:

1) Unlawful, Such as those that are specially designed for entertainment and singing, like the flute and mandolin, etc;

2) Lawful, like the playing of the tambourine (daff) at weddings and other happy occasions.” (See: Ibn Humam, Fath al-Qadir, 6/36)

The same has more or less been mentioned in the other Hanafi works also, such as al-Ikhtiyar, al-Bahr al-Ra’iq, al-Fatawa al-Hindiyya and others.

Imam an-Nawawi, the great Hadith and Shafi’i scholar states:

“It is unlawful to use or listen to musical instruments, such as, those which the drinkers are known for, like the mandolin, lute, cymbals, and flute. It is permissible to play the tambourine (daff) at weddings, circumcisions and other times, even if it has bells on its sides. Beating the Kuba, a long drum with a narrow middle, is also unlawful.” (Mugni al-Muhtaj, 4/429, & Reliance of the traveller, 775)

There are many other statements of the Fuqaha and scholars such al-Qurtubi, and in each of the four Madhhabs, but due to the length of the article, I will suffice with the above.

As for those who hold music to be lawful usually present the Hadith of Sahih al-Bukhari in which two girls were singing in the presence of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) and Sayyida A’isha (Allah be pleased with her).

However, the permissibility of music can not be justified with this Hadith. The Hadith expert, Hafidh Ibn Hajr al-Asqalani has refuted this claim in length in his Fath al-Bari, 2/345).

Firstly, these young girls were singing without any unlawful musical instruments and secondly, the content of the song was regarding war, thus perfectly lawful. Also, they were not professional singers as the words of the Hadith clearly indicate.

Some try to justify music with the Hadith in which the permissibility of playing the tambourine (daff) is mentioned.

However, as stated in the works of the Fuqaha, to play the tambourine is permissible at weddings, as it is not designed for sole entertainment and pleasure, rather for announcement, etc…

Conclusion

In the light of the above evidences from the Qur’an, sayings of our beloved Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give peace) and texts of the various Fuqaha, the following is the decisive ruling with regards to music:

Musical instruments that are solely designed for entertainment are unlawful, with or without singing. However, to play the tambourine (daf) at weddings (and other occasions according to some fuqaha) will be permissible.

As far as the songs are concerned, if they consist of anything that is unlawful or they prevent one from the obligatory duties, then they will be unlawful. However, if they are free from the abovementioned things (and they are not accompanied by instruments), then it will be permissible to sing them.

And Allah knows best .

মঙ্গলবার, এপ্রিল ২৬, ২০১১



Biograph



ক্যাপশন যুক্ত করুন
HISTORY OF THE COMPILATION OF QURAN

1. Scribing during the life of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). The Revelation scribes wrote down the Quran, according to the order of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), on pieces of cloth, leather, bones, and stones. Its verses were ordered and arranged according to Allah's inspiration. At the beginning, it was not gathered in one book. Some of the Prophet's companions scribed parts and surahs specially for themselves after they had memorized it from the Prophet.
2. Compiling Quran during the era of Abu Bakr al-Siddiq: Zayd Ibn Thabit gathered the Quran in one book. He was charged to do this by Abu Bakr al-Siddiq, according to an advice from Umar Ibn Al-Khattab. Its resource was the parts written by the Revelation scribes; so he gathered all of it in one book, the Holy Quran.
3. Compiling Quran during the era of Uthman Ibn Affan: In his reign, the Quran was written from the main copy gathered during the era of Abu Bakr al-Siddiq. It was kept at the residence of Hafsah Bint Umar, (one of the Prophet's wives). He charged the following scribes to do it:

1. Zayd Ibn Thabit.
2. Abdullah Ibn Al-Zubair.
3. Said Ibn Al-`As.
4. Abdul-Rahman Ibn Al-Harith Ibn Hisham.

They scribed many copies of Quran, reflecting in their writing the different correct readings (Arabic accents) of it; excluding any incorrect one. It was not marked with dots or vowel points. Uthman kept a copy at Medina and sent the remaining copies to the various Islamic countries.

1. Dotting and Vowelization. Dotting and vowelization passed through three stages:

1. In the first stage: Dots were used as syntactical marks. This was in the era of Mu`awiyah Ibn Abi Sufyan, who charged Abu Al-Aswad Al-Dualy to do it in order to prevent people from a faulty reading of the Quran.
2. In the second stage: Arabic letters were marked with different dotting to differentiate between them (e.g.:B, T,TH). This was in the time of Abdul-Malik Ibn Marawan, who charged Al-Hajjaj to do it. Al-Hajjaj, in his turn, charged Nasr Ibn Asem and Hayy Ibn Yaamor to accomplish it.
3. In the third stage: Complete vowel points (e.g. dammah, fathah, kasrah) were used, in the form we are using nowadays. This method was invented by Al-Khaleel Ibn Ahmed Al Faraheedi.
Introduction to and History of the Sunnah
1. What is the Sunnah?

Definition: Sunnah in Arabic means "a way to be followed" or "an example to be imitated". However, in Islamic terminology the word sunnah can have several meanings depending on the subject being discussed, as shown below:

1) Every saying and action of Prophet Mohammad (pbuh), every situation where he approved of an action or saying by someone else, and his personal traits and manners.

2) For fiqh scholars, the word Sunnah is sometimes used to describe recommended (mustahab) actions as opposed to obligatory (fardh) actions.

In general, when the Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) does a certain action regularly, or gives glad tidings to those who do a certain action, it is considered by fiqh scholars to be recommended. An example of this would be praying 2 rak'at before Fajr prayer. The Prophet used to always pray these 2 rak'at, and he promised great rewards for anyone who prayed them. However, the Prophet never ordered anyone to pray these 2 rak'at. Therefore, fiqh scholars said that these 2 rak'at are to be considered recommended and not obligatory. However, when the Prophet orders the believers to do something, such as ordering men to grow their beards, this is considered to be wajib (required), and not doing that action is considered prohibited or haram.

However, in this article we are discussing the Sunnah in the first sense. We are talking about the Sunnah in general as a source of legislation and Shariah. We will try to prove that Allah (swt) has commanded Muslims to follow the Sunnah in the holy Qur'an, and that Allah (swt) has made the Sunnah a source of Shariah.

It is obligatory for all Muslims to follow the Sunnah of Prophet Mohammad (pbuh), and it is obligatory to follow all the orders of Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) and refrain from all what he asked us to stay away from. This will be proven in this article and the next one about the authority of the Sunnah (please see link at the end of this article).

One last thing to note: the term Hadith is sometimes used interchangeably with the term Sunnah. Hadith simply means speech. The Hadith usually refers to all the sayings and actions of the Prophet. The Sunnah is a broader term, since it includes the Hadith and also the Prophets way of life, his manners, his personality and his biography.

2. Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) as a Teacher:

The Sunnah as mentioned earlier is a term that is used to describe the actions and sayings of Prophet Mohammad (pbuh). Therefore, when we talk about the history of the Sunnah we must first quickly discuss the source of this Sunnah, Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) himself.

Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) was the best example of a teacher and mentor. This is because he used to teach people with the utmost kindness and leniency, and he used to stay away from harshness and scolding. He, peace be upon him, used to teach Islam in a way to make people's lives easier, and to give them glad tidings. He used to refrain from making matters difficult for people, or doing anything that would push people away from Islam.

Unfortunately, many people, especially non-Muslims, have an image of Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) as promoting Islam by force or by violence. This could not be farther from the truth. Unfortunately, those people also include some Muslims who simply believe anything that comes from the west.

However, for anyone who has spent the least amount of time studying the biography (seerah) of Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) and his Sunnah, they would know that he was the kindest and most lenient of teachers. He used to treat all Muslims as if they were his own children. And he never shouted at anyone in his life. Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) also rarely got angry in his life, and when he did he only got angry for the sake of Allah (swt).

Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) used to live for delivering the message of Islam. He spent every waking moment of his life in the service of Islam, and he was subjected to many kinds of pressure and physical harm, which he took with patience and steadfastness. May Allah (swt) shower his peace and blessings on Mohammad, who went through much suffering to bring us the beautiful message of Islam.

Our discussion here is not about the biography (seerah) of Prophet Mohammad (pbuh), however this brief introduction was required as background information to the rest of our discussion. There is much to learn from the biography and manners of Prophet Mohammad (pbuh), for both non-Muslims and also Muslims as well. We will leave this for another discussion Insha' Allah (God Willing).

3. The Companions of the Prophet and the Sunnah:

The second issue we must discuss is that of the companions of Prophet Mohammad (pbuh). After all, they are the ones who heard his sayings and saw his actions, and they are the ones who transmitted all of this to us. The companions methodology of learning the Sunnah was to believe that it is the only hope for salvation in this life and the hereafter. Therefore, they were keen on being with the Prophet in most of his gatherings and lectures.

In order not to miss anything said or done by the Prophet, some companions used to alternate in attending the gatherings of the Prophet, and then exchange notes in order to have a complete picture of what he said. They also used to study the sayings of the Prophet and memorize them, and many companions used to write the Sunnah in order to preserve it as well. The companions were indeed an excellent example for us on how to learn and follow the Sunnah, and regard this as our top priority in life.

After the death of the Prophet, the companions were very careful in preserving the Sunnah. They ensured not to mention a hadith unless it is verified that it is a true saying of Prophet Mohammad (pbuh). They also used to verify the hadith amongst each other, and prevent people who have little knowledge from saying hadith because they will probably make mistakes in it. They also used to be careful to use the same wording as the original hadith by Prophet Mohammad (pbuh).

4. Traveling to Collect the Sunnah:

As Islam spread through the world, many companions and then the followers of the companions traveled to different parts of the world to spread the message of Islam. Therefore, the Sunnah also spread with them across many parts of the world. This meant that those among the companions who wanted to collect and learn the Sunnah would have to travel to various cities to take the Sunnah from the companions at those cities.

This is indeed what happened, and this continued for the students of knowledge and especially those who specialized in studying the Sunnah. Every scholar of Hadith used to travel to many different cities to learn the Sunnah from it's original sources. After the death of the companions, people used to get the Sunnah from the students of the companions, and so on.

This travel in search of the Hadith also had other benefits in addition to simply collecting and learning Hadith of various cities. It also helped the spread of the Sunnah, and it added more paths to the sanad (chain of transmission) of the Hadith. In addition, it allowed Hadith scholars to exchange views, books and ideas, and it allowed them to study the situations of the rawi (transmitter) of the Hadith in order to check his reliability.
5. The Sunnah was written during the time of Prophet Mohammad (pbuh):

This is a major issue of concern to many people, including Muslims. Some non-Muslims, in their vain attempts to weaken Muslims' belief in Islam, have launched a major campaign against the Sunnah. Since they know that no Muslim would doubt the holy Qur'an, they thought that the Sunnah would be an easy target. However, they did not know that their attempts would only work on people with very little knowledge of Islam and people who simply believe any statement that comes from a westerner.

Unfortunately, most Muslims today do not study very much about Islam and the history of Islam. Most Muslim countries prefer to teach only a few fiqh issues in their schools, such as how to pray and how to fast. They rarely discuss issues such as aqeedah and the Sunnah for example. We hope that the following quick overview will help Muslims to discover the truth about the Sunnah.

Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) had over 60 "writers" during his life. These "writers" used to write for the Prophet everything he ordered them such as the holy Qur'an, letters to other leaders and to Muslims governors, agreements with other nations or tribes and other such documents. Therefore, a large part of the Sunnah was written officially in this format during the life of the Prophet. In addition to this, individuals used to also write the Hadith, or sayings of the Prophet Mohammad, in order to help them memorize these Hadith.

Many Muslims believe that the Prophet ordered the companions not to write the Hadith, and some deviant groups use this as a basis for them to disregard the entire Sunnah. There is only one sahih (correct) hadith about this from the Prophet which says the following:

"لا تكتبوا عني, و من كتب عني شيئا غير القرآن فليمحه" و زاد في رواية: "و حدثوا عني و لا حرج, و من كذب علي فليتبوأ مقعده من النار". (صحيح مسلم 8/229, تقييد العلم 29 � 32).

This hadith can be translated as: "Do not write about (or from) me, and whoever wrote anything from me other than the Qur'an he should erase it", and in one narration the following statement is added: "and say the hadith about me with no restrictions, and whoever lies on my behalf should be ready to take his place in the hell fire". The hadith is narrated in Sahih Muslim.

This hadith is the only hadith that is sahih where the Prophet orders the companions not to write the Sunnah. On the other hand, there are many hadith where the Prophet orders his companions to write the Sunnah. The following are two examples:

قوله صلى الله عليه و سلم في حجة الوداع: "اكتبوا عني لأبي شاه" (البخاري من الفتح 1/279 ح 113).

قوله صلى الله عليه و سلم لعبد الله بن عمرو مشيرا بإصبعه إلى فمه: "اكتب فوالذي نفسي بيده ما خرج منه إلا الحق" (أخرجه الإمام أحمد 2/205, و أبو داوود 3/318, و الدرامي 1/125, و هو صحيح الإسناد, انظر تقييد العلم 82).

The first hadith is narrated in sahih Bukhari, where the Prophet orders his companions to write his sayings for a person named "Abi Shah". This occurred during the final hajj season before the death of the Prophet. The second hadith occurred when one companion asked the Prophet whether he should write the Sunnah, and the Prophet replied by pointing to his mouth and saying: "Write, for by Allah, nothing comes out of this except the truth". This hadith is also sahih, and is narrated by Imam Ahmad, Abu Dawood and Addrami.

Muslim scholars have explain these hadith in several ways, we mention 2 below:

1. That the order not to write the Sunnah was early in Islam, when the Prophet was afraid that his sayings would get mixed with the holy Qur'an. But once Muslims were able to recognize the style of the holy Qur'an, which is unique from any other style, the Prophet allowed the writing of the hadith. This is especially strengthened by the fact that we know that the Prophet ordered the companions to write his sayings during the last hajj he performed.

2. That the Prophet forbid writing the Sunnah during the time the holy Qur'an was being revealed and written, or that he forbid writing the Sunnah in the same papers or books as the holy Qur'an.

There are other opinions by various scholars, but the important thing is that the scholars of Islam have agreed by consensus that the Prophet did indeed allow and in fact ordered the companions to write the Sunnah. This consensus is reported by, among others, the well known scholars of Hadith:
الخطيب البغدادي و الحافظ ابن صلاح

Now that we know that the Prophet did ask the companions to write the Sunnah, and he definitely asked them to transmit it orally, we ask what are some examples of the Sunnah written during the life of the Prophet? These include some documents written by the "writers" of the Prophet upon his order, such as his letters to the kings and leaders of various nations, his letters to other tribes inviting them to Islam, his letters to the Muslim governors, judges and zakat workers to guide them in their work, and a number of agreements, treaties and contracts and so on.

In addition to the official documents mentioned earlier, which were written by the order of the Prophet, there were other writings by the individual efforts of the companions. These include the following: "Assaheefa Assadiqa", written by Abdullah ibn Amr ibn Al-'as, and it contained one thousand hadith. Also, there were the books of Sa'ad ibn Obada, Mo'ath ibn Jabal and Abi Rafi'. In addition, there was the writings of Ali ibn Abi Talib and Jaber ibn Abd Allah Al-Ansari.

All of these are the books and writings of the companions of the Prophet, who heard the hadith directly from him peace be upon him. Many of these documents, both the official ones and the individual writings by the companions, are preserved until today in the books of Sunnah, history and seerah. Therefore, it is clear that there is no place for anyone to claim that the Sunnah was not written during the time of the Prophet.

In addition to all this, Muslims also used to memorize the hadith of the Prophet. In fact, some scholars when collecting the hadith used to prefer to take hadith from one who memorizes it over one who has the hadith written. This is because the one who memorized the hadith is less likely to make a mistake, and is more likely to have understood the hadith and worked based on it's teachings.


As mentioned in the previous section, thousands of hadith, documents and agreements were written by the companions during the life of Prophet Mohammad (pbuh). These documents and books of hadith remained with the companions who wrote them after the death of Prophet Mohammad (pbuh). These books were scattered amongst the companions and were not collected in large collections. In addition to that, many hadith were memorized by the companions, and were transmitted to their students during halaqa (classes) of studying Islam orally.

During this time, the Muslims did not see a great need to collect the hadith into organized books. After all, the companions were available, and they used to memorize the hadith and teach it to their students who used to memorize it as well. And since writing was not easy at the time, after all every book would have to be written by hand, most people depended on memorization in their teaching and not writing. It is true till this day: a student who memorizes the hadith perfectly can benefit from it much more than one who hears the hadith once and writes it in his notes never to remember it again.

The hadith continued to be memorized by the hearts, and much of it also written in the books of individual companions. It was also being taught to the next generation of Muslims, the followers of the companions, and to the vast numbers of people who were entering Islam every year.

The first collection of hadith officially sanctioned by a leader of the Muslims, that we know of, was done by the Ameer of Misr (Misr is also known by its un-Islamic name egypt). His name was Abdul Aziz ibn Marwan, and he was the Ameer of Misr around the year of 80 after the hijra. He wrote to Katheer ibn Morra Al-Hadrami telling him to send him all the hadith he can collect, except the hadith narrated by Abu Hurayra, since he already had it collected. Katheer had met with over 70 of the companions who had fought in the battle of badr, so he had a wealth of hadith from them.

Of course, from this historical record we can also deduce that the Ameer had already begun to collect the hadith before that, since he already had the hadith narrated by Abu Hurayra. Therefore, the action pointed to by this historical record is in fact that the Ameer wanted to build up and increase his existing collection of hadith.

Another major effort to collect the hadith was made during the rule of the fifth guided khalifah, Omar ibn Abdul Aziz, around the year 100 after the hijra. This was a widespread and concerted effort that was started by the Khalifah, top leader of the Muslims. This effort to collect the hadith was special because it had the following qualities:

1.

All governors of the Muslim nation were asked to send the hadith that they have in their provinces to the Khalifah.
2.

The scholars of Islam were gathered in order to help verify and write the Sunnah, and help to spread it across the Muslim world.
3.

The extraordinary effort put into ensuring the accuracy of all that was written. This was done by gathering the best scholars who memorized the Sunnah in order to verify everything that is written.
4.

After the Sunnah was collected and written, copies of it were made and sent to all Muslim lands and nations.

After this action by Omar ibn Abdul Aziz, Muslim scholars continued to spend a lot of efforts to continue gathering, verifying, classifying and writing books about the Sunnah. They developed sciences on how to verify the hadith, and how to classify it and so on.

Therefore, from what we have mentioned above, it is clear to anyone who studied Islam and the history of Islam that the Sunnah was preserved by both memorization and by writing since the time of Prophet Mohammad. However, some of the anti-Islamic elements try to shake Muslims belief in the Sunnah by saying that the Sunnah was not written until 200 or even 300 years after the death of Prophet Mohammad! It is obvious to everyone who has spent some time to study the issue that these claims are blatant lies!

Muslims should not be surprised that these people who have no religion, or those who have distorted their own religion, would have no problem in lying. Muslims should fear Allah (swt) and not take any news or information from non-Muslims, especially when this information is about our own religion of Islam or about a group of Muslims. We all know how hard the enemies of Islam work in the media and in their books in order to tarnish the images of certain groups of Muslims, or Islam in general, and we should not believe anything they say without clear and incontrovertible evidence.

7. Methods for Transmitting the Sunnah:

Now that we have some historical background about the Sunnah, we should devote some time to talk about how the Sunnah was transmitted to us today. In fact, the method of transmitting the Sunnah is a truly ingenious and unique method invented and used only by the Islamic Ummah. No other civilization was able to come up with similar methods to accurately transmit their claimed holy texts.

Muslims put a huge amount of effort in order to protect and preserve the Sunnah, and to keep it clean from any inaccuracies or fabrications. This effort was made by thousands of Hadith scholars, who spent their lives in the service of the Sunnah. Their efforts in combating fabrications and preserving the Sunnah are discussed later on.

In order to ensure the accuracy of every sentence in the Sunnah, the Hadith scholars devised a system where every hadith contains two parts. A sanad (chain or narrators) and a matn (the actual words said by the Prophet). The sanad is the chain of narrators of the hadith. When the hadith scholars came across a hadith, they required the person saying the hadith to say who he learned this hadith from, and who that person learned it from, and so on, up to the companion who heard it directly from the Prophet.

By requiring this sanad with every single hadith, the scholars were able to check this chain of narrators and decide on whether this hadith is authentic or not. They developed books, still available today, that describe all these narrators, their dates of birth, where they lived, their level of memorization, their character and so on. The hadith scholars, before declaring a hadith to be sahih or accurate, intensively check the sanad of the hadith.

This includes historical checks to ensure that each 2 narrators lived at the same time and in the same place. It also includes checking for the character and level of memorization of that person. This science was called ilm al-rijal or aljarh wal ta'deel, which means science of men. The scholars collected information about each narrator from people who know him or people who did some business with him etc. They collected this information in order to allow them to judge the reliability of each narrator.

For example, if a narrator is known to have lied once in his life, during a business transaction, marriage, to his friends etc. he is rejected and the hadith narrated by him is considered weak or fabricated. If a narrator is known to occasionally make mistakes, this is taken into account. If he missed some prayers, or was known to have deviant beliefs etc. all this was taken into account.

All these books are still available today. We also still have the books where the scholars ranked each narrator depending on their reliability. All this information was then used to rank the hadith as being: sahih, hasan, da'eef or mawdoo'. In order for a hadith to be deemed sahih, the chain of narrators must be continuous with no gaps, every narrator must have excellent character and excellent memorization, and the matn is checked to make sure it doesn't contradict the Qur'an or other known hadith and so on.

The sciences of hadith are some of the most complicated in Islam, and it honestly cannot be fully explained here. However, we hope that we were able to give an overview of how the hadith was transmitted in order to give readers strong confidence about the scholars who performed this task. If someone is interested to learn more, there are hundereds of books about aljarh wal ta'deel and mostalah al hadeeth and so on. For others, you should have some confidence and trust in the work done by the scholars and trust their word when they say a hadith is sahih or daee'f etc.

8. Classification of Hadith:

It may be useful here to mention briefly some of the classes of hadith. The hadith can be classified in two ways:

1) Classification based on number of narrators in each generation:

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Motawatir. These are hadith where a large number of people narrated the same hadith in each generation of the chain of narrators.
*

Ahaad. These are hadith that are narrated by only a few people in each generation.

We know that the motawatir hadith are indeed the sayings of Prophet Mohammad (pbuh). This is because of the large number of people who heard the prophet say the hadith, and then it was transmitted through many different chains of narrators and it ended up to be still exactly the same hadith.

The Ahaad hadith must be studied in detail, as mentioned above, in order to prove them and they are classified as follows:

2) Classification based on studying the narrators:

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Sahih and hasan. These are hadith which were judged to be truly the words of Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) by the scholars who specialize in Hadith. Sahih are a higher class than hasan.
*

Da'eef. These are weak hadith, which are not proven to be from the Prophet.
*

Mawdoo'. These are hadith known to be fabricated.

Scholars of hadith, such as Bukhari and Muslim, collected sahih hadith only and put them in their books of: Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim. However, they did not attempt nor claim to have collected all sahih hadith. There are many other books of hadith such as Musnad Ahmad, Mowatta' Malik and so on which contain many sahih hadith as well.


9. The Efforts of the Scholars to Preserve the Sunnah:

For many reasons, some people invariably tried to lie about the Prophet and make up hadith and say they heard it from the Prophet. These people had various motivations, but their final destination was clearly mentioned to us by the Prophet, that they should be ready to take their seat in the hell fire.

One of the biggest sources of liars about the Prophet were the deviant groups, who tried to re-enforce their deviant ideas by producing fake hadith. Some scholars have reported that the first deviant group to start producing fake hadith was the Shia, who had no evidence from the Qur'an or Sunnah and so they tried to fake hadith. In any case, we will try to mention some of the efforts of how the scholars tried to combat these deviant groups and their fake hadith:

1. Requiring a full isnad (chain of narrators) for each hadith before accepting it. As we all know every hadith is composed of two parts: sanad and matn. The sanad means the chain of narrators, which starts with the person who heard the hadith from the Prophet, then the person who heard from him and so on. The matn is the actual wording that the Prophet said. Before adding a hadith to their collection, the scholars required that they hear the entire chain of narrators for it up to the person saying the hadith.

2. After hearing the sanad, the scholars used historical evidence to expose liars who had just invented the hadith. This is because the scholars had books detailing narrators of hadith, which were of course mostly scholars and their students. They knew during what years they lived, and in what cities they lived and so on. Therefore, they can expose inaccuracies in the sanad which prove that the person is lying.

3. The books about the narrators also included information about each narrator such as: how religious he was, if he attended prayers, if his beliefs were correct, if he belonged to any deviant groups, if he was ever known to lie etc. Therefore, after checking the historical accuracy of the sanad (to ensure that every narrator met with the previous one in the chain and so on), the scholars also checked to ensure the character of each narrator.

4. The scholars developed the science of "Al-Jarh wal Ta'deel", also known as "Ilm Ar-Rijal" (the knowledge of men). This basically included the books mentioned earlier which contain a listing of narrators, and information about them. This science allowed scholars to classify narrators into classes based on the strength of their memorization and their Islamic character. Therefore, hadith would be taken only from people with good character who have good memorization. If someone has good memorization but sometimes makes mistakes in memorization, the hadith may be taken but is put into a lower class.

5. Classifying hadith into classes. This includes "motawatir" hadith (narrated by a large number of people in every generation of the chain of narrators), then sahih, hasan, da'eef and finally mawdoo' (fabricated). They depended on the following factors in this classification:

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Having a continuous sanad (chain of narrators) with no gaps.
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The character of the narrators
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The quality of the memorization of the narrators
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The matn (wording) of the hadith does not contradict the Qur'an or other sahih hadith.
*

The hadith does not have any subtle reasons in the sanad that makes it weak (called 'illa in Arabic).
*

Having other hadith with the same meaning to back the hadith up.

6. Exposing liars and fabricators by letting all Muslims know that they are liars and warning people not to listen to any hadith from them or take their word for anything.

7. Writing books that include "mawdoo' hadith", or fabricated hadith, and proving why they are fabricated. These books are written to warn Muslims from taking such hadith as true.

8. Checking for signs of fabrication in the wording of the hadith. This can include the style of the wording, as the Prophet was known to be extremely eloquent in his wording. It also includes checking that the wording does not contradict the basics of Islam, and that it doesn't contradict things known for sure by the human mind. It also includes checking for historical accuracy if the hadith is reporting an action during a certain time and so on.

10. Conclusion:

In conclusion, after the very quick and brief discussion in this article, we hope that it will be clear to all Muslims that the Sunnah was memorized and written during the time of the Prophet Mohammad, and that it was officially collected very early in Islam. We also hope that Muslims now have a better idea about some of the efforts of the scholars of Islam in ensuring the accuracy of the hadith that they have reported in their books.

Now that we are confident about the Sunnah, the next subject that Muslims should learn about is the "hojjiyat Assunah", or the Authority of the Sunnah. In that discussion, we shall talk about the different types of the Sunnah, and our obligation towards it, and we shall prove that it is obligatory on every Muslim to follow the Sunnah of Prophet Mohammad (pbuh). Please see the link below to visit the article on the "Authority of the Sunnah".